The currency market, or foreign exchange market ("forex"), was created to facilitate the exchange of currency that becomes necessary as the result of foreign trade. That is, when an entity in one country sells something to an entity in another country, the seller earns that foreign currency. When China sells t-shirts to Walmart, for example, China earns US dollars. When Toyota wants to build a factory in the US, it needs dollars. It may get those from its local bank, which in turn will obtain them in the international currency market. This market exists to facilitate these types of exchanges.
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For example, if you believe the share price of a company currently trading for \$100 is going to rise to \$120 by some future date, you’d buy a call option with a strike price less than \$120 (ideally a strike price no higher than \$120 minus the cost of the option, so that the option remains profitable at \$120). If the stock does indeed rise above the strike price, your option is in the money.
The price you pay for an option, called the premium, has two components: intrinsic value and time value. Intrinsic value is the difference between the strike price and the share price, if the stock price is above the strike. Time value is whatever is left, and factors in how volatile the stock is, the time to expiration and interest rates, among other elements. For example, suppose you have a \$100 call option while the stock costs \$110. Let’s assume the option’s premium is \$15. The intrinsic value is \$10 (\$110 minus \$100), while time value is \$5.
The potential home buyer would benefit from the option of buying or not. Imagine they can buy a call option from the developer to buy the home at say \$400,000 at any point in the next three years. Well, they can—you know it as a non-refundable deposit. Naturally, the developer wouldn’t grant such an option for free. The potential home buyer needs to contribute a down-payment to lock in that right.

A call option is a contract that gives the investor the right to buy a certain amount of shares (typically 100 per contract) of a certain security or commodity at a specified price over a certain amount of time. For example, a call option would allow a trader to buy a certain amount of shares of either stocks, bonds, or even other instruments like ETFs or indexes at a future time (by the expiration of the contract).