Remember, a stock option contract is the option to buy 100 shares; that’s why you must multiply the contract by 100 to get the total price. The strike price of INR 300 means that the stock price must rise above INR 300 before the call option is worth anything; furthermore, because the contract is INR 10 per share, the break-even price would be INR 310(INR 300 + INR 10).
Similarly, if you believe the company’s share price is going to dip to \$80, you’d buy a put option (giving you the right to sell shares) with a strike price above \$80 (ideally a strike price no lower than \$80 plus the cost of the option, so that the option remains profitable at \$80). If the stock drops below the strike price, your option is in the money.
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```For example, if you believe the share price of a company currently trading for \$100 is going to rise to \$120 by some future date, you’d buy a call option with a strike price less than \$120 (ideally a strike price no higher than \$120 minus the cost of the option, so that the option remains profitable at \$120). If the stock does indeed rise above the strike price, your option is in the money.
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Options are available as either a Call or a Put, depending on whether they give the right to buy, or the right to sell. Call options give the holder the right to buy the underlying commodity, and Put options give the right to sell the underlying commodity. The buying or selling right only takes effect when the option is exercised, which can happen on the expiration date (European options), or at any time up until the expiration date (US options).
Because options prices can be modeled mathematically with a model such as the Black-Scholes, many of the risks associated with options can also be modeled and understood. This particular feature of options actually makes them arguably less risky than other asset classes, or at least allows the risks associated with options to be understood and evaluated. Individual risks have been assigned Greek letter names, and are sometimes referred to simply as "the Greeks."
Pay a “premium” wherever you buy a commodity option. Let's say you purchase a “call” option on 100 bushels of corn, and the premium is \$2 per bushel. You will pay \$200 for the right to exercise your option until it expires. That is your only cost to purchase the option, except for whatever commission you had to pay to your brokerage company. Even if you choose not to exercise the option before it expires, your investment will be limited to the \$200 premium plus commission.
Another example involves buying a long call option for a \$2 premium (so for the 100 shares per contract, that would equal \$200 for the whole contract). You buy an option for 100 shares of Oracle (ORCL) for a strike price of \$40 per share which expires in two months, expecting stock to go to \$50 by that time. You've spent \$200 on the contract (the \$2 premium times 100 shares for the contract). When the stock price hits \$50 as you bet it would, your call option to buy at \$40 per share will be \$10 "in the money" (the contract is now worth \$1,000, since you have 100 shares of the stock) - since the difference between 40 and 50 is 10. At this point, you can exercise your call option and buy the stock at \$40 per share instead of the \$50 it is now worth - making your \$200 original contract now worth \$1,000 - which is an \$800 profit and a 400% return.
A sampling of terms defined includes: active premium, aggregation, angel financing, asset allocation, backwardation, benchmark, bridge loan, capital structure arbitrage, coefficient of determination, commodity option, convertible arbitrage, deferred futures, discretionary trading, distressed debt, enumerated agricultural commodities, extrinsic value, follow-on funding, hedge ratio, interdelivery spread, long short equity, modified value-at-risk, offshore fund, piggyback registration, social entrepreneurship, systematic trading, tracking error, underlying futures contract, venture capital method, and weather premium.
```The information contained in this article is provided for general informational purposes, and should not be construed as investment advice, tax advice, a solicitation or offer, or a recommendation to buy or sell any security. Ally Invest does not provide tax advice and does not represent in any manner that the outcomes described herein will result in any particular tax consequence. Prospective investors should confer with their personal tax advisors regarding the tax consequences based on their particular circumstances.
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Traders that are willing to accept considerable amounts of risk with the prospects of limited reward, can write (or sell) options, collecting the premium and taking advantage of the well-known belief that more options than not expire worthless. The premium collected by a commodity option seller is seen as a liability until the option is either offset (by buying it back), or it expires. This is because as long as the option position is open (the trader is short the commodity option), there is substantial risk exposure. Should the futures price trade beyond the strike price of the option, the risk is similar to holding a commodity futures contract outright.